Relics "relics" auf Deutsch
Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für relics im Online-Wörterbuch novytoys.nl (Deutschwörterbuch). novytoys.nl | Übersetzungen für 'relics' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "relics" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für relics im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'relics' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.
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Relics Übersetzungen und BeispieleDa es schwierig ist, sich auf den Dächern zu sichern und nur grösste Umsicht vor dem Absturz bewahrt, putzt er die Schornsteine wann immer es geht von unten. Nach seinem Tod wurden seine Reliquien nach Sevilla überführt. In Prague at that time, sacred relics were shown together with imperial jewels in Beste Spielothek in Zaase finden Body of Christ Chapel. The Andorians have seen your sacred relics. Farm Frenzy Kostenlos Spielen m. Today, only a few relics are left to remind us of one of Saarland's most important industrial sites. DE Überbleibsel Fossil. Ungarisch Wörterbücher.
The veneration of relics continues to be of importance in the Eastern Orthodox Church. As a natural outgrowth of the concept in Orthodox theology of theosis , the physical bodies of the saints are considered to be transformed by divine grace —indeed, all Orthodox Christians are considered to be sanctified by living the mystical life of the Church, and especially by receiving the Sacred Mysteries Sacraments.
In the Orthodox service books , the remains of the departed faithful are referred to as "relics", and are treated with honour and respect.
For this reason, the bodies of Orthodox Christians are not traditionally embalmed. The veneration of the relics of the saints is of great importance in Orthodoxy, and very often churches will display the relics of saints prominently.
In a number of monasteries , particularly those on the Holy Mountain Mount Athos in Greece , all of the relics the monastery possesses are displayed and venerated each evening at Compline.
Thus Orthodox teaching warns the faithful against idolatry and at the same time remains true to scriptural teaching vis.
The examination of the relics is an important step in the glorification canonization of new saints. Sometimes, one of the signs of sanctification is the condition of the relics of the saint.
Some saints will be incorrupt , meaning that their remains do not decay under conditions when they normally would natural mummification is not the same as incorruption [ clarification needed ].
Sometimes even when the flesh does decay the bones themselves will manifest signs of sanctity. They may be honey colored or give off a sweet aroma.
Some relics will exude myrrh. The absence of such manifestations is not necessarily a sign that the person is not a Saint.
Relics play a major role in the consecration of a church. The consecrating bishop will place the relics on a diskos paten in a church near the church that is to be consecrated, they will then be taken in a cross procession to the new church, carried three times around the new structure and then placed in the Holy Table altar as part of the consecration service.
The relics of saints traditionally, always those of a martyr are also sewn into the antimension which is given to a priest by his bishop as a means of bestowing faculties upon him i.
The antimens is kept on the High Place of the Holy Table altar , and it is forbidden to celebrate the Divine Liturgy Eucharist without it.
Occasionally, in cases of fixed altars, the relics are built in the altar table itself and sealed with a special mixture called wax-mastic.
The necessity of provide relics for antimensions in new churches often necessitates continuous division of relics. An account of this process can be found in a treatise of a pre-revolutionary Russian church historian Nikolay Romansky ru.
According to Romansky, the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church operated a special office, located in the Church of Philip the Apostle in the Moscow Kremlin , where bones of numerous saints, authenticated by the church's hierarchs, were stored, and pieces of them were prayerfully separated to be sent to the dioceses that needed to place them into new antimensions.
While Orthodoxy does not make use of the strict classification system of the Roman Catholic Church, it too recognizes and venerates relics which may pertain to Jesus Christ or a saint, such as a relic of the True Cross , the Chains of Saint Peter feast day , 16 January , the grapevine cross of Saint Nino of Georgia, etc.
Places can also be considered holy. When one makes a pilgrimage to a shrine he may bring back something from the place, such as soil from the Holy Land or from the grave of a saint.
The veneration of the relics of saints became an incredibly important part of devotional piety in both Sunni and Shia Islam throughout the classical and medieval periods, with "the ubiquity of relics and ritual practices associated with them" becoming a mainstay of "the devotional life of the Muslims Most of the trusts can be seen in the museum, but the most important of them can only be seen during the month of Ramadan.
A cloak kherqa believed to have belonged to the prophet Mohammed is kept in the central mosque in Kandahar , Afghanistan.
The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis. In Mullah Omar , leader of the Afghan Taliban , took it out, displayed it to a crowd of ulema religious scholars and was declared Amir-ul Momineen "Commander of the Faithful".
Prior to this, the last time it had been removed had been when the city was struck by a cholera epidemic in the s. A contact relic , or secondary relic , is a physical object which has acquired the status of a relic due to a physical closeness to the body of a holy figure.
While Marxism—Leninism is an ideology rather than a religion, many communist states placed importance on the preservation of the remains of their respective founders, and making them available for veneration by citizens, in "secular cathedrals"  of sorts.
In both the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China the mausolea of, respectively, Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong were the focal points of the two nations' capitals.
The communists did not rely on the natural incorruptibility of the remains, but used an elaborate embalming process to preserve the lifelike appearance of the bodies.
Minor communist nations would often seek the help of the USSR  or PRC to preserve the remains of their own founders in a similar way to how it was done in Moscow or Beijing.
The bodies of the founders of the socialist Czechoslovakia, Mongolia, and Angola were also at some point made available for display and veneration in similar mausolea.
Even though Soviet Communism is commonly viewed as anti-religious in general, and anti-Christian in particular, parallels between the veneration of Lenin's body in his mausoleum and, for a while, that of Stalin 's body as well  and that of the relics of Christian saints in their reliquaries have not been lost on many observers.
Relic is also the term for something that has survived the passage of time, especially an object or custom whose original culture has disappeared, but also an object cherished for historical or memorial value such as a keepsake or heirloom.
In most cases, artifact, archaeological site, monument, or just plain archaeology would be a better translation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Physical remains or personal effects of a saint or venerated person. For other uses, see Relic disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed.
Ancient Greek vase paintings also depict the head of Orpheus prophesying. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on New York: Robert Appleton Company, Retrieved 20 April Camino de Santiago.
Anderson, Gary M. Augustine : " Against the Worship of Relics. Vatican Website. Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Retrieved 23 Oct Retrieved 10 May Retrieved Curatio, Graec.
Acta Morphologica et Anthropologica. Independent Catholic News. The Sewing Circles of Herat. First Perennial edition , p.
In Sally M. There was always a disposition to regard any human remains accidentally discovered near a church or in the catacombs as the body of a martyr.
Hence, though men like St. Athanasius and St. Martin of Tours set a good example of caution in such cases, it is to be feared that in the majority of instances only a very narrow interval of time intervened between the suggestion that a particular object might be, or ought to be, an important relic, and the conviction that tradition attested it actually to be such.
There is no reason in most cases for supposing the existence of deliberate fraud. The persuasion that a benevolent Providence was likely to send the most precious pignora sanctorum to deserving clients, the practice already noticed of attributing the same sanctity to objects which had touched the shrine as attached to the contents of the shrine itself, the custom of making facsimiles and imitations, a custom which persists to our own day in the replicas of the Vatican statue of St.
Peter or of the Grotto of Lourdes, all these are causes adequate to account for the multitude of unquestionably spurious relics with which the treasuries of great medieval churches were crowded.
In the case of the Nails with which Jesus Christ was crucified, we can point to definite instances in which that which was at first venerated as having touched the original came later to be honoured as the original itself.
Join to this the large license given to the occasional unscrupulous rogue in an age not only utterly uncritical but often curiously morbid in its realism, and it becomes easy to understand the multiplicity and extravagance of the entries in the relic inventories of Rome and other countries.
On the other hand it must not be supposed that nothing was done by ecclesiastical authority to secure the faithful against deception. Such tests were applied as the historical and antiquarian science of that day was capable of devising.
Very often however, this test took the form of an appeal to some miraculous sanction, as in the well known story repeated by St.
Ambrose, according to which, when doubt arose which of the three crosses discovered by St. Helena was that of Christ , the healing of a sick man by one of them dispelled all further hesitation.
Similarly Egbert, Bishop of Trier , in , doubting as to the authenticity of what purported to be the body of St. Celsus, "lest any suspicion of the sanctity of the holy relics should arise, during Mass after the offertory had been sung, threw a joint of the finger of St.
Celsus wrapped in a cloth into a thurible full of burning coals, which remained unhurt and untouched by the fire the whole time of the Canon" Mabillon "Acta SS.
The decrees of synods upon this subject are generally practical and sensible, as when, for example, Bishop Quivil of Exeter , in after recalling the prohibition of the General Council of Lyons against venerating recently found relics unless they were first of all approved by the Roman Pontiff , adds: "We command the above prohibition to be carefully observed by all and decree that no person shall expose relics for sale, and that neither stones, nor fountains, trees, wood, or garments shall in any way be venerated on account of dreams or on fictitious grounds.
Nevertheless it remains true that many of the more ancient relics duly exhibited for veneration in the great sanctuaries of Christendom or even at Rome itself must now be pronounced to be either certainty spurious or open to grave suspicion.
To take one example of the latter class, the boards of the Crib Praesaepe — a name which for much more than a thousand years has been associated, as now, with the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore—can only be considered to be of doubtful.
In his monograph "Le memorie Liberiane dell' Infanzia di N. Cozza Luzi frankly avows that all positive evidence for the authenticity of the relics of the Crib etc.
Strangely enough, an inscription in Greek uncials of the eighth century is found on one of the boards, the inscription having nothing to do with the Crib but being apparently concerned with some commercial transaction.
It is hard to explain its presence on the supposition that the relic is authentic. Similar difficulties might he urged against the supposed "column of the flagellation" venerated at Rome in the Church of Santa Prassede and against many other famous relics.
Still, it would be presumptuous in such cases to blame the action of ecclesiastical authority in permitting the continuance of a cult which extends back into remote antiquity.
On the one hand no one is constrained to pay homage to the relic, and supposing it to be in fact spurious, no dishonour is done to God by the continuance of an error which has been handed down in perfect good faith for many centuries.
On the other hand the practical difficulty of pronouncing a final verdict upon the authenticity of these and similar relics must be patent to all.
Each investigation would be an affair of much time and expense, while new discoveries might at any moment reverse the conclusions arrived at.
Further, devotions of ancient date deeply rooted in the heart of the peasantry cannot be swept away without some measure of scandal and popular disturbance.
To create this sensation seems unwise unless the proof of spuriousness is so overwhelming as to amount to certainty.
Hence there is justification for the practice of the Holy See in allowing the cult of certain doubtful ancient relics to continue.
Meanwhile, much has been done by quietly allowing many items in some of the most famous collections of relics to drop out of sight or by gradually omitting much of the solemnity which formerly surrounded the exposition of these doubtful treasures.
For illustration's sake reference may be made to the Count de Riant's work "Exuviae Constantinopolitanae" or to the many documents printed by Mgr.
Barbier de Monault regarding Rome , particularly in vol. In most of these ancient inventories, the extravagance and utter improbability of many of the entries can not escape the most uncritical.
Moreover though some sort of verification seems often to be traceable even in Merovingian times, still the so called authentications which have been printed of this early date seventh century are of a most primitive kind.
They consist in fact of mere labels, strips of parchment with just the name of the relic to which each strip was attached, barbarously written in Latin.
It would probably be true to say that in no part of the world was the veneration of relics carried to greater lengths with no doubt proportionate danger of abuse, than among Celtic peoples.
The honour paid to the handbells of such saints as St. Patrick , St. Senan , and St. Mura , the strange adventures of sacred remains carried about with them in their wanderings by the Armorican people under stress of invasion by Teutons and Northmen , the prominence given to the taking of oaths upon relics in the various Welsh codes founded upon the laws of Howell the Good, the expedients used for gaining possession of these treasures, and the numerous accounts of translations and miracles , all help to illustrate the importance of this aspect of the ecclesiastical life of the Celtic races.
Translations At the same time the solemnity attached to translations was by no means a peculiarity of the Celts.
The story of the translation of St. Cuthbert's remains is almost as marvellous as any in Celtic hagiography. The forms observed of all-night vigils, and the carrying of the precious remains in "feretories" of gold or silver, overshadowed with silken canopies and surrounded with lights and incense , extended to every part of Christendom during the Middle Ages.
Indeed this kind of solemn translation elevatio corporis was treated as the outward recognition of heroic sanctity , the equivalent of canonization , in the period before the Holy See reserved to itself the passing of a final judgment upon the merits of deceased servants of God , and on the other hand in the earlier forms of canonization Bulls it was customary to add a clause directing that the remains of those whose sanctity was thus proclaimed by the head of the Church should be "elevated", or translated, to some shrine above ground where fitting honour could be paid them.
This was not always carried at once. Hugh of Lincoln , who died in , was canonized in , but it was not until that his remains were translated to the beautiful "Angel Choir" which had been constructed expressly to receive them.
This translation is noteworthy not only because King Edward I himself helped to carry the bier, but because it provides a typical example of the separation of the head and body of the saint which was a peculiar feature of so many English translations.
The earliest example of this separation was probably that of St. Edwin , king and martyr ; but we have also the cases of St. Oswald, St.
Chad, St. Richard of Chichester translated in , and St. William of York translated It is probable that the ceremonial observed in these solemn translations closely imitated that used in the enshrining of the relics in the sepulcrum of the altar at the consecration of a church while this in turn, as Mgr Duchesne has shown, is nothing but the development of the primitive burial service the martyr or saint being laid to rest in the church dedicated to his honour.
But the carrying of relics is not peculiar to the procession which takes place at the dedications of a church.
Their presence is recognized as a fitting adjunct to the solemnities of almost every kind of procession , except perhaps those of the Blessed Sacrament , and in medieval times no exception was made even for these latter.
Feast of relics It has long been customary especially in churches which possessed large collections of relics, to keep one general feast in commemoration of all the saints whose memorials are there preserved.
An Office and Mass for this purpose will be found in the Roman Missal and Breviary , and though they occur only in the supplement Pro aliquibus locis and are not obligatory upon the Church at large, still this celebration is now kept almost universally.
The office is generally assigned to the fourth Sunday in October. In England before the Reformation , as we may learn from a rubric in the Sarum Breviary , the Festum Reliquiarum was celebrated on the Sunday after the feast of the Translation of St.
Thomas of Canterbury 7 July , and it was to be kept as a greater double "wherever relics are preserved or where the bodies of dead persons are buried, for although Holy Church and her ministers observe no solemnities in their honour , the glory they enjoy with God is known to Him alone.
Thurston, H. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. MLA citation. While the CD reissue by Pink Floyd Records reverted to the original sketch cover, it also contains photographs of the three-dimensional object inside the booklet.
In May , for the 48th anniversary of the album's release, Nick Mason's official Twitter account, as well as the official Pink Floyd Facebook page, posted a fan made animation of the original cover art.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pink Floyd. Storm Thorgerson created a new cover for the re-release, photographing a model inspired by the original line drawing.
Mind Head Publishing. Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original on 15 November Brain Damage. September Retrieved 16 May Australian Chart Book — Illustrated ed.
Ives, N. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 10 June UK Albums Chart. British Phonographic Industry.
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The Second Council of Nicaea in drew on the teaching of St. John Damascene  that homage or respect is not really paid to an inanimate object, but to the holy person, and indeed the veneration of a holy person is itself honour paid to God.
The veneration of the relics of the saints reflects a belief that the saints in heaven intercede for those on earth.
A number of cures and miracles have been attributed to relics, not because of their own power, but because of the holiness of the saint they represent.
Many tales of miracles and other marvels were attributed to relics beginning in the early centuries of the church.
These became popular during the Middle Ages. These tales were collected in books of hagiography such as the Golden Legend or the works of Caesarius of Heisterbach.
These miracle tales made relics much sought-after during the Middle Ages. By the late Middle Ages the collecting of, and dealing in, relics had reached enormous proportions, and had spread from the church to royalty, and then to the nobility and merchant classes.
The Council of Trent of enjoined bishops to instruct their flocks that "the holy bodies of holy martyrs The council further insisted that "in the invocation of saints, the veneration of relics and the sacred use of images, every superstition shall be removed and all filthy lucre abolished.
The cult of Martin of Tours was very popular in Merovingian Gaul, and centered at a great church built just outside the walls of Tours.
When Saint Martin died November 8, , at a village halfway between Tours and Poitiers , the inhabitants of these cities were well ready to fight for his body, which the people of Tours managed to secure by stealth.
Tours became the chief point of Christian pilgrimage in Gaul, a place of resort for the healing of the sick. Later, as bishop of Tours, Gregory wrote extensively about miracles attributed to the intercession of St Martin.
In his introduction to Gregory's History of the Franks , Ernest Brehaut analyzed the Romano-Christian concepts that gave relics such a powerful draw.
He distinguished Gregory's constant usage of sanctus and virtus , the first with its familiar meaning of "sacred" or "holy", and the second as "the mystic potency emanating from the person or thing that is sacred.
In a practical way the second word [virtus] These points of contact and yielding are the miracles we continually hear of".
Rome became a major destination for Christian pilgrims as it was easier to access for European pilgrims than the Holy Land.
Constantine erected great basilicas over the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul. A distinction of these sites was the presence of holy relics.
Over the course of the Middle Ages, other religious structures acquired relics and became destinations for pilgrimage. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, substantial numbers of pilgrims flocked to Santiago de Compostela in Spain, in which the supposed relics of the apostle James, son of Zebedee , discovered c.
By venerating relics through visitation, gifts, and providing services, medieval Christians believed that they would acquire the protection and intercession of the sanctified dead.
Instead of having to travel to be near to a venerated saint , relics of the saint could be venerated locally. Relics are often kept on a circular decorated theca, made of gold, silver, or other metal.
Believers would make pilgrimages to places believed to have been sanctified by the physical presence of Christ or prominent saints, such as the site of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
As holy relics attracted pilgrims and these religious tourists needed to be housed, fed, and provided with souvenirs, relics became a source of income not only for the destinations that held them, but for the abbeys, churches, and towns en route.
Relics were prized as they were portable. They could add value to an established site or confer significance on a new location. On occasion guards had to watch over mortally ill holy men and women to prevent the unauthorized dismemberment of their corpses as soon as they died.
Relics were used to cure the sick, to seek intercession for relief from famine or plague, to take solemn oaths, and to pressure warring factions to make peace in the presence of the sacred.
Courts held relics since Merovingian times. Angilbert acquired for Charlemagne one of the most impressive collections in Christendom.
Relics entered into commerce along the same trade routes followed by other portable commodities. Matthew Brown likens a ninth-century Italian deacon named Deusdona, with access to the Roman catacombs, as crossing the Alps to visit monastic fairs of northern Europe much like a contemporary art dealer.
Canterbury was a popular destination for English pilgrims, who traveled to witness the miracle-working relics of Thomas Becket, the sainted archbishop of Canterbury who was assassinated by knights of King Henry II in The motivations included the assertion of the Church's independence against rulers, a desire to have an English indeed Norman English saint of European reputation, and the desire to promote Canterbury as a destination for pilgrimage.
In the first years after Becket's death, donations at the shrine accounted for twenty-eight percent of the cathedral's total revenues.
Many churches were built along pilgrimage routes. A number in Europe were either founded or rebuilt specifically to enshrine relics, such as San Marco in Venice and to welcome and awe the large crowds of pilgrims who came to seek their help.
Romanesque buildings developed passageways behind the altar to allow for the creation of several smaller chapels designed to house relics. From the exterior, this collection of small rooms is seen as a cluster of delicate, curved roofs at one end of the church, a distinctive feature of many Romanesque churches.
Gothic churches featured lofty, recessed porches which provided space for statuary and the display of relics.
Historian and philosopher of art Hans Belting observed that in medieval painting, images explained the relic and served as a testament to its authenticity.
In Likeness and Presence , Belting argued that the cult of relics helped to stimulate the rise of painting in medieval Europe.
Reliquaries are containers used to protect and display relics. While frequently taking the form of caskets, they have many other forms including simulations of the relic encased within e.
Since the relics themselves were considered valuable, they were enshrined in containers crafted of or covered with gold, silver, gems, and enamel.
In the absence of real ways of assessing authenticity, relic-collectors became prey to the unscrupulous, and some extremely high prices were paid.
Forgeries proliferated from the very beginning. Augustine already denounced impostors who wandered around disguised as monks, making a profit from the sale of spurious relics.
Pieces of the True Cross were one of the most highly sought after of such relics; many churches claimed to possess a piece of it, so many that John Calvin famously remarked that there were enough pieces of the True Cross to build a ship from.
By the middle of the 16th century, the number of relics in Christian churches became enormous, and there was practically no possibility to distinguish the authentic from the falsification, since both of them had been in the temples for centuries and were objects for worship.
Calvin says that the saints have two or three or more bodies with arms and legs, and even a few extra limbs and heads.
Due to the existence of counterfeit relics, the Church began to regulate the use of relics. Canon Law required the authentication of relics if they were to be publicly venerated.
They had to be sealed in a reliquary and accompanied by a certificate of authentication, signed and sealed by someone in the Congregation for Saints ,  or by the local Bishop where the saint lived.
Without such authentication, relics are not to be used for public veneration. The documents and reliquaries of authenticated relics are usually affixed with a wax seal.
In Catholic theology, sacred relics must not be worshipped, because only God is worshipped and adored. Instead, the veneration given to them was " dulia ".
Saint Jerome declared, "We do not worship, we do not adore, for fear that we should bow down to the creature rather than to the Creator, but we venerate the relics of the martyrs in order the better to adore Him whose martyrs they are.
The sale or disposal by other means of "sacred relics" meaning first and second class without the permission of the Apostolic See is nowadays strictly forbidden by canon of the Code of Canon Law.
Peter's chains , preserved in San Pietro in Vincoli , Rome, a second-class relic. Main Altar of St. Relics of St.
Ambrose and St. Augustine , most unexceptionable witnesses, declare in their writings that they have not merely heard and read about, as many did but have seen with their own eyes", Ambrose, Epist.
And from thence, turning to Scriptural analogies, the compilers further argue: "If the clothes, the kerchiefs Acts , if the shadow of the saints Acts , before they departed from this life, banished diseases and restored strength, who will have the hardihood to deny that God wonderfully works the same by the sacred ashes, the bones, and other relics of the saints?
This is the lesson we have to learn from that dead body which, having been accidentally let down into the sepulchre of Eliseus, "when it had touched the bones of the Prophet, instantly came to life" 2 Kings , and cf.
Sirach We may add that this miracle as well as the veneration shown to the bones of Joseph see Exodus and Joshua only gain additional force from their apparent contradiction to the ceremonial laws against defilement, of which we read in Numbers The influence of this Jewish shrinking from contact with the dead so far lingered on that it was found necessary in the "Apostolical Constitutions" vi, 30 to issue a strong warning against it and to argue in favour of the Christian cult of relics.
According to the more common opinion of theologians , relics are to be honoured ; St. Thomas , in Summa III , does not seem to consider even the word adorare inappropriate— cultu duliae relativae , that is to say with a veneration which is not that of latria divine worship and which though directed primarily to the material objects of the cult—i.
Hauck, Kattenbusch, and other non-Catholic writers have striven to show that the utterances of the Council of Trent are in contradiction to what they admit to be the "very cautious" language of the medieval scholastics, and notably St.
The latter urges that those who have an affection to any person hold in honour all that was intimately connected with him. Hence, while we love and venerate the saints who were so dear to God , we also venerate all that belonged to them, and particularly their bodies, which were once the temples of the Holy Spirit, and which are some day to be conformed to the glorious body of Jesus Christ.
Thomas, " God fittingly does honour to such relics by performing miracles in their presence [ in earum praesentia ]. Thomas speaks of miracles worked "in their presence".
But it is quite unnecessary to attach to the words per quae the idea of physical causality. We have no reason to suppose that the council meant more than that the relics of the saints were the occasion of God's working miracles.
When we read in the Acts of the Apostles , xix, 11, 12, "And God wrought by the hand of Paul more than common miracles. So that even there were brought from his body to the sick, handkerchiefs and aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the wicked spirits went out from them" there can be no inexactitude in saying that these also were the things by which per quae God wrought the cure.
There is nothing, therefore, in Catholic teaching to justify the statement that the Church encourages belief in a magical virtue, or physical curative efficacy residing in the relic itself.
It may be admitted that St. Cyril of Jerusalem A. For example, St. Cyril, after referring to the miracle wrought by the body of Eliseus, declares that the restoration to life of the corpse with which it was in contact took place: "to show that even though the soul is not present a virtue resides in the body of the saints , because of the righteous soul which has for so many years tenanted it and used it as its minister".
And he adds, "Let us not be foolishly incredulous as though the thing had not happened, for if handkerchiefs and aprons which are from without, touching the body of the diseased, have raised up the sick, how much more should the body itself of the Prophet raise the dead?
But this seems rather to belong to the personal view or manner of speech of St. He regards the chrism after its consecration "as no longer simple ointment but the gift of Christ and by the presence of His Godhead it causes in us the Holy Ghost" Cat.
Be this as it may, it is certain that the Church , with regard to the veneration of relics has defined nothing, more than what was stated above.
Neither has the Church ever pronounced that any particular relic, not even that commonly venerated as the wood of the Cross, as authentic; but she approves of honour being paid to those relics which with reasonable probability are believed to be genuine and which are invested with due ecclesiastical sanctions.
Early history Few points of faith can be more satisfactorily traced back to the earliest ages of Christianity than the veneration of relics. The classical instance is to be found in the letter written by the inhabitants of Smyrna , about , describing the death of St.
After he had been burnt at the stake, we are told that his faithful disciples wished to carry off his remains, but the Jews urged the Roman officer to refuse his consent for fear that the Christians "would only abandon the Crucified One and begin to worship this man".
Eventually, however, as the Smyrnaeans say, "we took up his bones, which are more valuable than precious stones and finer than refined gold, and laid them in a suitable place, where the Lord will permit us to gather ourselves together, as we are able, in gladness and joy , and to celebrate the birthday of his martyrdom.
Harnack's tone in referring to this development is that of an unwilling witness overwhelmed by evidence which it is useless to resist. It flourished to its greatest extent as early as the fourth century and no Church doctor of repute restricted it.
All of them rather, even the Cappadocians, countenanced it. The numerous miracles which were wrought by bones and relics seemed to confirm their worship.
From the Catholic standpoint there was no extravagance or abuse in this cult as it was recommended and indeed taken for granted, by writers like St.
Augustine , St. Ambrose , St. Jerome , St. Gregory of Nyssa , St. Chrysostom , St. Gregory Nazianzen , and by all the other great doctors without exception.
To give detailed references besides those already cited from the Roman Catechism would be superfluous. Suffice it to point out that the inferior and relative nature of the honour due to relics was always kept in view.
Thus St. Jerome says "Ad Riparium", i, P. Cyril of Alexandria writes "Adv. LXXVI, : "We by no means consider the holy martyrs to be gods, nor are we wont to bow down before them adoringly , but only relatively and reverentially [ ou latreutikos alla schetikos kai timetikos ].
Theodore by St. Gregory of Nyssa P. Contrasting the horror produced by an ordinary corpse with the veneration paid to the body of a saint the preacher expatiates upon the adornment lavished upon the building which had been erected over the martyr's resting place, and he describes how the worshipper is led to approach the tomb "believing that to touch it is itself a sanctification and a blessing and if it be permitted to carry off any of the dust which has settled upon the martyr's resting place, the dust is accounted as a great gift and the mould as a precious treasure.
And as for touching the relics themselves, if that should ever be our happiness , only those who have experienced it and who have had their wish gratified can know how much this is desirable and how worthy a recompense it is of aspiring prayer " col.
This passage, like many others that might be quoted, dwells rather upon the sanctity of the martyr's resting place and upon that of his mortal remains collected as a whole and honourably entombed.
Neither is it quite easy to determine the period at which the practice of venerating minute fragments of bone or cloth, small parcels of dust, etc.
We can only say that it was widespread early in the fourth century, and that dated inscriptions upon blocks of stone, which were probably altar slabs, afford evidence upon the point which is quite conclusive.
One such, found of late years in Northern Africa and now preserved in the Christian Museum of the Louvre, bears a list of the relics probably once cemented into a shallow circular cavity excavated in its surface.
Omitting one or two words not adequately explained, the inscription runs: "A holy memorial [ memoria sancta ] of the wood of the Cross, of the land of Promise where Christ was born, the Apostles Peter and Paul, the names of the martyrs Datian, Donatian, Cyprian , Nemesianus, Citinus, and Victoria.
In the year of the Province [i. We learn from St. Cyril of Jerusalem before that the wood of the Cross, discovered c. Gregory of Nyssa in his sermons on the forty martyrs , after describing how their bodies were burned by command of the persecutors , explains that "their ashes and all that the fire had spared have been so distributed throughout the world that almost every province has had its share of the blessing.
I also myself have a portion of this holy gift and I have laid the bodies of my parents beside the ashes of these warriors, that in the hour of the resurrection they may be awakened together with these highly privileged comrades" P.
We have here also a hint of the explanation of the widespread practice of seeking burial near the tombs of the martyrs. It seems to have been felt that when the souls of the blessed martyrs on the day of general were once more united to their bodies, they would be accompanied in their passage to heaven by those who lay around them and that these last might on their account find more ready acceptance with God.
We may note also that, while this and other passages suggest that no great repugnance was felt in the East to the division and dismemberment of the bodies of the saints , in the West, on the other hand, particularly at Rome , the greatest respect was shown to the holy dead.
The mere unwrapping or touching of the body of a martyr was considered to be a terribly perilous enterprise, which could only be set about by the holiest of ecclesiastics , and that after prayer and fasting.
This belief lasted until the late Middle Ages and is illustrated, for example, in the life of St. Hugh of Lincoln , who excited the surprise of his episcopal contemporaries by his audacity in examining and translating relics which his colleagues dared not disturb.
Also included were the B-sides of the three follow-up singles, with the tracks " Paintbox ", " Julia Dream " and " Careful with That Axe, Eugene " appearing in true stereo.
Relics has the only CD release of "Paintbox" that has the same length that the original single version had; on the albums The Early Singles , part of Shine On , The First Three Singles , and the 40th anniversary edition of The Piper at the Gates of Dawn , it fades out about 13 seconds later.
The album also includes a previously unreleased studio recording of a Roger Waters composition, "Biding My Time", which had otherwise only been heard by live audiences as part of the Man and the Journey concert sequence.
Until this was rectified with the release of The Early Singles , it was left to bootlegs such as The Dark Side of the Moo to plug the gap.
The album cover was designed by drummer Nick Mason, and was inspired by his time studying architecture at the Regent Street Polytechnic.
In , Mason sold a limited edition of signed prints of this cover. In addition to variations on the original design, the album was released in several countries with different artwork.
The four-eyed face on the original US album cover was an antique bottle opener. When the album was released on CD, former Hipgnosis partner Storm Thorgerson had a real-life version of the contraption on the cover made and presented it to Mason.
It is still in Mason's office. Both Thorgerson and his assistant, Peter Curzon, came up with the idea after viewing the head sculpture which appeared on the album sleeve of The Division Bell , constructed by John Robertson.
While the CD reissue by Pink Floyd Records reverted to the original sketch cover, it also contains photographs of the three-dimensional object inside the booklet.
In May , for the 48th anniversary of the album's release, Nick Mason's official Twitter account, as well as the official Pink Floyd Facebook page, posted a fan made animation of the original cover art.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pink Floyd. Storm Thorgerson created a new cover for the re-release, photographing a model inspired by the original line drawing.
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